Compound Sindarin Names in Middle-earth

Four Rings
Lena — October 2003
Analytical ArticleAnalytical Articles: These articles provide a detailed overview of the theme they cover. However, they require some prior knowledge of the main works of J.R.R. Tolkien.

The spelling of all separate elements of compounds is given in accordance with how we think (or, rather, HFK thinks) they would be written in TA Sindarin (except for archaic forms, i.e. Dor, Tel, etc). Thus, for example, the form of a monosyllabic word in -nd is preferred to the one in -nn or -n and so on. The meanings of the separate elements are taken from Hiswelókë's Sindarin dictionary and/or the “Etymologies”. References are given only if the origin or the meaning of the word is (IMHO) questionable and therefore are needed for reference.

I'd like to thank Didier Willis and Gildor Inglorion for their ideas and support. Without their help this work would have never reached its final stage.

Specific references:

  • His – Hiswelókë's Sindarin dictionary
  • HKF – Information is taken from Helge Fauskanger’s articles on Ardalambion
  • # - my deductions or uncertainties; highly questionable!
  • TA S – Third Age Sindarin (LotR-style Sindarin)

A

  • Abonnen – after born; ab (prefix “after”) + onnen (p.p. of onna- “beget”)
  • Adanath – men; adan (“man”) + ath (collective plural suffix)
  • Adanedhel (Túrin) – man-elf; adan (“man”) + edhel (“elf”)
  • Aderthad – reunion; ad (“again”) + erthad (ger. of ertha- “unite”)
  • Adurant – double course; adu (Ilk (AS?) “double”) + rant (“load, vein”)
  • Aeglos – snowthorn; aeg (S aegas “mountain peak, thorn”) + gloss (“snow-white”) or loss (“snow”) The final s in (g)loss is dropped at the end of a polysyllable [HKF].
  • Aegnor – fell fire; aeg (from Q aika “fell”) + naur (“flame”) S form of Q Aikanáro “sharp flame, fell fire”; the name was not true S, as there was no S adjective corresponding to Q “fell, terrible”, though aeg would have been its form if it had occurred1).
  • Aelin-uial – lake-twilight; aelin (pl. of ael “lake, pool, mere”) + uial (“twilight”)
  • Aeluin — pale, #blue lake; ael (“lake, pool, mere”) + #luin (Dor. “pale, #blue”)
  • Aerandir – sea-wanderer; aer, aear (“sea”) + randír (“wanderer, pilgrim”)
  • Agarwaen (Túrin) – bloodstained; agar (“blood”) + gwaen (“stained” [Etym. WA3-]) #The formation of the last element is not clear.
  • Aglarond – the glittering cavern; aglar (“glory, brilliance”) + rond (“dome-roofed hall”2))
  • Aglon(d) – defile, pass between high walls; ag- (S agor “narrow”) + lond (“pass”)
  • Alfirin – immortal; al- (negative prefix) + firin (“mortal”)
  • Amloth – high flower; am (prefix “up”) + loth (“flower”)
  • Amon Anwar – hill of awe; amon (“hill, steep-sided mount”), anwar (“awe”)
  • Amon Amarth – mount [of] doom; amon (“hill, steep-sided mount”), amarth (“fate, doom”)
  • Amon Carab – hill of the hat; amon (“hill, steep-sided mount”), carab (“hat”)
  • Amon Dîn – silent hill; amon (“hill, steep-sided mount”), dîn (“silent”) Davis Salo: “dh and mh were liable to revert to d and m when they came to follow a nasal after syncope” TolkLang message 19.31. #The name also could be interpreted as “hill of silence”, as adjective “silent” is attested as dínen.
  • Amon Ereb – lonely hill; amon (“hill, steep-sided mount”), ereb (“isolated, lonely”)
  • Amon Ethir – hill spy; amon (“hill, steep-sided mount”), [His.] ed (“out”) + tirn (“watcher”)
  • Amon Hen – hill of the eye; amon (“hill, steep-sided mount”), hend (“eye”) #The ending -nd is usually preserved at the end of fully accented monosyllables3), but here might be dropped because hend is preceded by another fully accented polysyllable, which made it lose some stress.
  • Amon Lanc – naked hill; amon (“hill, steep-sided mount”), lanc (“naked”)
  • Amon Lhaw – hill of hearing; amon (“hill, steep-sided mount”), lhaw (pl. “ears”)
  • Amon Obel – #hill-village; amon (“hill, steep-sided mount”) + obel (“walled house or village”) #The second element is found in Obel Halad (possibly “town of chieftain”4)).
  • Amon Rûdh – bald hill; amon (“hill, steep-sided mount”), rûdh (“bald”)
  • Amon Sûl– hill of the wind; amon (“hill, steep-sided mount”), sûl (“wind”)
  • Amon Uilos– mount of ever-white snow; amon (“hill, steep-sided mount”), #ui (stem of uireb “eternal”) + loss (“snow”) The final s in loss is dropped at the end of a polysyllable [HKF].
  • Ancalagon – jaws-rushing5); anc (“jaw, row of teeth”) + alag (“rushing, impetuous”) + #on (#male ending); LRW:417 translates it as “Biting Storm”, the final element probably alagos “storm”, with a change of the last consonant.
  • Andram – long wall; and (“long”) + ramb (“wall”)
  • Andras(t) – long cape; and (“long”) + #rast (#“shore”) #The second element is probably the same as in Nevrast and Haerast.
  • Andrath – long climb; and (“long”) + rath (“course, passage”)
  • Androth – long cave; and (“long”) + groth (“underground dwelling”)
  • Anduin – long river; and (“long”) + duin (“long and large river”)
  • Anfalas – long strand; and (“long”) + falas (“coast, beach, shore”)
  • An(d)fang – long beard; and (“long”) + fang (“beard”)
  • Anfangrim – long bearded dwarves; and (“long”) + fang (“beard”) + rim (collective plural suffix)6)
  • Anfauglir – long-thirsty-jaws (Carcharoth); an(d) (“long”) + faug (“thirst”) + lîr (“row, range #of teeth”)
  • Anfauglith – great-thirsty-ash; and (“great”) + faug (“thirst“) + lith (“ash, sand, dust”).
  • Angband - iron hell, prison; ang (“iron”) + (m-)band (“prison”) From *angmbandâ, *gmb produces gb.
  • Angerthas – long rune-rows; and (“long”) + certhas (“rune rows”) > certh (“a rune”) + as (#abstract colletive suffix)
  • Anglachel – flaming iron; ang (“iron”) + lach (from lacha- “flame”) + #êl (“star”)
  • Anghabar – #iron mine; ang (“iron”) + sabar (“delved mine”) #[His.] habar as the regular form might be possible as well.
  • Angmar – iron land; ang (“iron”) + (m-)bar (“land, dwelling”) The lenition of the second element is unclear (we would rather expect Angbar) but edain often made mistakes when giving places Elvish names; see VT42 “Rivers and Beacon-hills”).
  • Angrenost – iron fortress (Isengard); angren (“iron”) + ost (“fortress, stronghold”)
  • Angrist – iron cleaver, sword; ang (“iron”) + rist (from risto “cleave”) The stem of the last element blended with the stem kris- of similar meaning7).
  • Angrod – iron-eminent one; ang (“iron”) + arod (from Tel. aráto “noble” < aráta “noble” + masculine ending o [HKF]) In Etym. RAUTĀ-, the second element is given as rod (from raud “metal”, earlier changed in from “copper”); S equivalent of Tel. Angaráto8).
  • Angwedh – chain; ang (“iron”) + gwedh (“bond”)
  • Annon-in-Gelydh – gate of the Noldor; annon (“great door or gate”) + in (pl. genitive article) + (n-)Gelyth (pl. of (n-)Golodh “Noldor”)
  • Annúminas – west tower; annûn (“west, sunset”) + minas (“tower”) #The assimilation of nm > mm > m could be “internal nasal mutation”.
  • Anórien – sun land; anor (“the sun”) + iend (-end commonly used suffix in the names of regions and countries9)) #The long ó could probably reflect the long vowel in the primitive root that remains long (in the first element of a compound) when stressed.
  • Aphadon – successor, follower; ab (prefix “after”) + pad- (“walk”) + on (#traditional ending for male names)
  • Aphadrim – followers (men); ab (prefix “after”) + pad- (“walk”) + rim (collective plural sufix)
  • Araglas – #royal joy; aran (“king”) + glass (“joy”)
  • Aradan – king-man; ar(a) (prefix “high, noble, royal”) + adan (“man”)
  • Arador – #royal lord; ara (prefix “high, noble, royal”) + taur (“king, lord”)
  • Aragorn – royal valor; aran (“king”) + gorn (“valor”) #The translation is given in PM, but it could just as well be more complicated and include or allude to other stems; several names [in the line of Arthedain] though S in form, are not readily interpretable10).
  • Aragost — #royal dread; aran (“king”) + gost (“dread”)
  • Arahael – #wise king; ara (prefix “high, noble, royal”) + sael (“wise”)
  • Aranath – kings; aran (“king”) + ath (collective plural suffix)
  • Aranarth – #noble king; aran (“king”) + arth (“lofty, noble”)
  • Aran Einior – Elder King (Manwë)11); aran (king) + einior (“elder”) > an (comparative prefix) + iaur (“ancient, old”)
  • Aranrúth – royal anger; aran (“king”) + rûth (“anger”) The archaic origin of the name can probably explain why assimilation nr > dhr doesn't take place.
  • Aranuir – #eternal king; aran (“king”) + #uir (“eternity”)
  • Araphant — #full king, king of all; aran (“king”) + pant (“full”) #The assimilation of n+p > ph could be “internal nasal mutation”.
  • Araphor – #royal fist; aran (“king”) + paur (“fist”)
  • Arathorn – royal eagle; aran (“king”) + thorn (“eagle”)
  • Araval – #golden king; ara (prefix “high, noble, royal”) + mall (“golden, of gold”)
  • Aravir – #royal jewel; ara (prefix “high, noble, royal”) + mîr (“jewel, treasure”)
  • Aravorn – #black king; ara (prefix “high, noble, royal”) + morn (“black”)
  • Ard-Galen – green region, area; ardh (“realm, region”) + calen (“green”)
  • Aredhel – high, noble elf; ar(a) (prefix “high, noble, royal”) + edhel (“elf”)
  • Argeleb – #royal silver; ar (prefix “high, noble, royal”) + #celeb (“silver”)
  • Argonath – royal stones; arn (prefix “royal”) + gond (“great stone, rock”) + ath (collective plural suffix). Triconsonantal cluster rgn produces rg; in this case original nd doesn’t produce nn before the collective plural suffix ath. #It might be a dialectal form or a mistake on the part of Gondorians who didn't always use Elvish languages correctly (VT42 “Rivers and Beacon-hills”).
  • Argonui – #royal valour; ar (prefix “high, noble, royal”) + caun (“valor”) + ui (adjectival suffix)
  • Arnor – royal land; ar (prefix “high, noble, royal”) + (n-)dor (“land, dwelling”) Arnor was retained to avoid Ardor and was later explained as the blending of Quenya Arnanóre with S arn(a)dor > ardor12)
  • Arossiach – fords of Aros; Aros (river name) + #iach (“ford”)
  • Arothir – noble lord; arod (“noble”) + hîr (“lord”) S equivalent of Q Artaher13).
  • Arthedain – noblemen; arth (“noble, lofty”) + edain (pl. of adan “man”)
  • Arvedui – last king; âr (“king”) + medui (“last”)
  • Arvegil – #royal sword; ar (prefix “high, noble, royal”) + megil (“sword”)
  • Arveleg – #mighty king; ar (prefix “high, noble, royal”) + beleg (“great, mighty”)
  • Arwen – royal, noble maiden; ar (prefix “high, noble, royal”) + gwend (“maiden, woman”)
  • Athrad Angren (pl. Ethraid Engrin) – iron ford; athrad (“river-crossing, ford, way”) + angren (“iron”) #The first element could be interpreted as: ath (prefix “on both sides, across”) + râd (“path, track”).
  • Athrad D(h)aer – great ford; athrad (“river-crossing, ford, way”) + daer (“great”) #The variation of the second element might reflect Tolkien's reluctance to use the “uncouth” digraph dh.
  • Athrad i-Negyth – ford of the dwarves; athrad (“river-crossing, ford, way”) + in (pl. genitive article) + negyth (pl. of nogoth “dwarf”) #The first element could be interpreted as: ath (prefix “on both sides, across”) + râd (“path, track”) [Etym. RAT-]

B

  • Balannor – land of Gods; Balan (“power, god”) + (n-)dor (“land, dwelling”)
  • Balrog - demon of power; bal- (stem “cruel” [Etym. ÑGWAL-]) + raug (“powerful and hostile creature, demon”)
  • Barad-dûr – dark tower; barad (“tower”) + dûr (“dark, somber”) #Dh could revert to d assimilated by the preceding d.
  • Barad Nimras – white-horn tower; barad (“tower”), nimp (“white”) + ras (“horn”) The original form of ras would probably be rass in TA S with the final s dropped at the end of a polysyllable [HKF].
  • Barad Eithel – tower of [the] well; barad (“tower”) + eithel (“spring, well”)
  • Baragund – fiery prince; bara (“fiery”) + cund (“prince”)
  • Barahir (Barachir) – fiery lord; bara (“fiery”) + hîr (“lord”)
  • Baranduin – gold-brown river; baran (“gold-brown”) + duin (“long and large river”) David Salo: ”dh and mh were liable to revert to d and m when they came to follow a nasal after syncope” TolkLang message 19.31.
  • Bar-en-Danwedh – house of ransom; bar (“house”) + en (gen. article) + #dan (“back”) +#gwedh (“bond”) #We would expect it to be Bar-e-Ndanwedh, but this could be a dialectal variant of the name
  • Bar-i-Mýl – home of the gulls; (m-)bar (“dwell, inhabit”) + in (gen. pl. article) + mýl (pl. of mýl “gull”)
  • Barthan – Earthbuilder (Aulë); (m-)bar (“dwell, inhabit”) + tan (“maker, smith”)
  • Basgorn – a loaf of bread; (m-)bast (“bread”) + corn (“round”))
  • Bauglir (Melkor) – tyrant (#forcing-chain); baug (“cruel, oppressive”) + lîr (“row, range”)
  • Belegaer – great sea; beleg (“great”) + (g)aer (“sea”)
  • Belegost – great fortress; beleg (“great, mighty”) + ost (“fortress”)
  • Belegurth – great death (Melkor)14); beleg (“great, mighty”) + gurth (“death”)
  • Beleriand – the land of Balar; Balar (the name of the island, from PQ *balāre) + iand (-and commonly used suffix in the names of regions and countries15))
  • Borlas – #lasting, faithful joy (male name); bór (“faithful, enduring”) + glass (“joy”)
  • Brethiliand – beech forest; brethil (“beech”) + and (commonly used suffix in the names of regions and counries16))
  • Brithombar – land of river Brithon; Brithon (name of the river “pebbly” [HKF]) + (m-)bar (“dwell, inhabit”)
  • Brilthor – glittering torrent; bril (Ilk. “glass, crystal”) + thôr (“swooping, leaping down”)
  • Brithiach – gravel ford; brith (Ilk. “broken stones, gravel”) + #iach (“ford”)
  • Bruinen – loud water; brui (“loud”) + nen (“water”)

C

  • Cabed-en-Aras – the deer’s leap; cabed (ger. of cab- “leap”) + en (gen. article) + aras (“deer”)
  • Cabed Naeramarth– leap of dreadful doom; cabed (ger. of cab- “leap”), naer (“sad, lamentable”) + amarth (“faith, doom”)
  • Cair Andros – ship of long foam; cair (“ship”), and (“long”) + ros (“foam, rain”) Nd doesn’t become nn before r17); the original form of ros would probably be ross, with the final s dropped at the end of a polysyllable [HKF].
  • Calben – a light person; cal (from PQ *kala- “light”) + pen (“someone, anyone”) Said to be “formally” related to Q Kalaquend18).
  • Calenardhon – green province; calen (“green”) + ardh (“realm, region”) + ond (commonly used suffix in the names of regions and countries19))
  • Calenhad – green place; calen (“green”) + sad (“limited area naturally or artificially defined, a place, spot”)
  • Camlost (Beren) – empty-handed; cam(b) (“hand”) + lost (“empty”)
  • Carnen – red water; car (from caran “red”) + nen (“water”)
  • Carach Angren – iron fang; carach (“spike, tooth or rock”) + angren (“iron”)
  • Caradhras – red horn; caran (“red”) + ras (“horn, mountain peak”) Dhr is < n-r in secondary contact; the original form of ras is probably rass with the final s dropped at the end of a polysyllable [HKF].
  • Caras Galadhon – fortress of the trees; caras (#Nan. “moated fortress”20)), galadh (“tree”) + #on (#could be Nan. genitive suffix [HKF])
  • Carcharoth – red maw; carch (“tooth, fang”) + car (from caran “red”) + #(h-)oth (#collective plural suffix)
  • Carchost – fang citadel; carch (“tooth, fang”) + ost (“fortress, stronghold”)
  • Celduin – running river; cell (adj. “running, flowing”) + duin (“big and large river”)
  • Celebdil – silver tine; celeb (“silver”) + till (“horn, point”)
  • Celeborn – #high silver21); celeb (silver) + orn (from PQ *ornē “uprising, tall”) Reinterpreted from earlier “silver tree”; celeb (“silver”) + orn (“tree”); S equivalent of Tel. Teleporno.
  • Celebrant – silver lode; celeb (“silver”) + rant (“load, vein”)
  • Celebrimbor – silver fist; celebrin (“silver-like”) + paur (“a tightly closed hand as in using an implement or a craft-tool”)22). Sindarized form of Tel. Telperimpar, Q Tyelpinquar.
  • Celebrindal – silver foot; celebren (< celebrina “silver-like”) + tâl (“foot”) [HKF] nd didn’t became nn when n and d come from different elements of a compound.
  • Celebros – silver foam, silver rain; celeb (“silver”) + ros (“foam, rain”) The original form of ros is probably ross, with the final s dropped at the end of a polysyllable [HKF].
  • Certh iMbelain – Sickle of the Powers (Q Valakirka); certh (“sickle”) + in (gen. pl. article) + Belain (pl. of Balan Power) The lenition of Balain to Mbelain reflects Tolkien's earlier view of nasal mutation, where b, d, g > mb, nd, ng [HKF]; or it could possibly be an archaic form.
  • Círdan – ship-maker; cír (pl. of cair “ship”) + tan (“maker, smith”)
  • Cirith Dúath – pass of shadow; cirith (“pass, cleft”), (“nightfall, night, dimness”) + gwath (“shadow”)
  • Cirith Forn en Andrath– nothern high-climbing pass; cirith (“pass, cleft”), forn (“north”), en (gen. article), and (“long”) + rath (#“climbing passage”)
  • Cirith Niniach– pass of rainbow; cirith (“pass, cleft”), niniach (“rainbow”) > nîn (“watery”) + #iach (“ford, bridge”)
  • Cirith Thoronath – pass of eagles; cirith (“pass, cleft”), thoron (“eagle”) + ath (collective plural suffix)
  • Cirith Ungol – pass of spider; cirith (“pass”), ungol (“spider”)
  • Cormallen – golden circle; corn (“round”) + mal(d) (“gold”) + en (adjective suffix)
  • Crissaegrim – cleft-peaks; criss (“cleft”) + aeg (S aegas “mountain peak, thorn”) + rim (collective plural suffix) [HKF] ss at the end of monosyllables is retained in intervocalic position.
  • Cúthalion – strong bow; (“bow”) + thalion (“strong, dauntless one”) > thala (“strong, dauntless”) + ion (traditional male ending)

D

  • Daerachas – great dread, fear; daer (“great”) + achas, gachas? [His.] (“dread, fear”)
  • Dagnir Glaurunga – slayer of Glaurung; dag- (“slay”) + (n-)dîr (“man, adult male”, here: “doer”) + Glaurung (dragon-name) + a (Doriathrin genitive ending) #The mutation of dîr to nir might be explained by the Doriathrin origin of the name.
  • Dagor Aglareb – glorious battle; dagor (“battle”), aglar (“glory”) + eb (adjective suffix)
  • Dagor Bragollach – battle of sudden flame; dagor (“battle”), bragol (“sudden”) + lach (“flame”)
  • Dagorlad – battle plane; dagor (“battle”) + lad (“plain, valley”)
  • Dagor-nuin-Giliath – battle under the stars; dagor (“battle”) + nu (prep. “under”) + in (pl. article) + gîl (“star”) + ath (collective plural suffix)
  • Dambeth – response; dan (“back”) + peth (“word”)
  • Damrod – metal hammer; (n-)dam (“hammer, beat”) + raud (“metal”) S form of Q Nambarauto; the second element was changed from earlier “copper”[Etym. RAUTĀ-]
  • Deldú(w)ath – horror night shadow; del (“fear, disgust, horror”) + (“nightfall, night, dimness”) + gwath (“shadow”)
  • Dimbar – sad land; dimb (Ilk. “sad, gloomy” [Etym. DEM-]) + (m-)bar (“land, dwelling”)
  • Dineth – young lady, bride (Indis); (“bride, lady”) + neth (“young”)
  • Dol Baran – gold-brown hill; (n-)dol (“hill”), baran (“gold-brown”) #The lack of lenition in baran could probably be explained by dialectal differences.
  • Dol Guldur – hill of dark magic; (n-)dol (“hill”), (n-)gûl (“magic”) + dûr (“dark”)
  • Dolmed – wet head; (n-)dol (“hill”) + méd (Dor. “wet”)
  • Dor-Cúarthol– land of bow and Helm; (n-)dôr (“land, dwelling-place”), (“bow”) + ar (“and”) + thôl (“helm”)
  • Dor Daedelos – land of great / shadow of fear; (n-)dôr (“land, dwelling-place”), dae (“shadow”) #or daer (“great”) + delos (“abhorrence, loathing, detestation”) [Etym. DYEL-] probably del (“fear”) + gos, goth (#gost? “dread”)
  • Dor Dínen – silent land; (n-)dôr(“land, dwelling-place”), dîn (“silence”) + en (adjective suffix) #The lack of lenition might be explained by Tolkien's dislike for “uncouth” digraph dh.
  • Dorgannas Iaur – account of the shapes of the lands of old; (n-)dôr (“land, dwelling place”) + cant (“shape”) + as (#abstract collective suffix) + iaur (“old”) #The suffix –as probably denotes “a complete set of different things of one kind”.
  • Dor Firn-i-Chuinar – land of the dead who live; (n-)dôr (“land, dwelling-place”), firn (pl. of fern “mortal”) + in (here: plural relative pronoun) + cuinar (3p pl. of cuina – “be alive”)
  • Doriath – land of the fence; (n-)dôr (“land,dwelling”) + iâth (“fence”); genitival sequences with possessor or qualifier second in the later period became fixed compounds, as Dóriath23); #probably reinterpreted by Tolkien from earlier ” land of the cave” < (n-)dôr (“land, dwelling-place”) + #i (sing or genitive article) + gath (“cavern”) [Etym. GATH-]
  • Dor Lómin (Lómen) – echoing land; (n-)dôr (“land, dwelling-place”), lómin ([also lómen] Dor. “echoing”)
  • Dor Lamren – echoing land (pure S of Dor Lómin); (n-)dôr (“land, dwelling-place”), glamren (“echoing”) < glam (S glamor, glambr “echo”) + en (adjectival suffix)
  • Dornhoth – thrawn folk (dwarves); dorn (“stiff, tough”) + hoth (“crowd, hord”, here used as collective plural suffix)
  • Dor-nu-Fauglith – land under choking ash; (n-)dôr (“land, dwelling”) + nu (prep. “under”) + faug (“thirst”) + lith (“ash, sand, dust”)
  • Dorthonion – land of pines; (n-)dôr (“land, dwelling-place”) + thôn (“pine-tree”) + ion ([HKF] Dor. plural gen. suffix)
  • Drambor – #heavy-blow fist; dramb (“heavy stroke”) + paur (“clenched fist”)
  • Draugluin – pale, #blue wolf; draug (“wolf”) + luin (Dor. “pale, #blue”)
  • Drúadan – one of the drû; drû (S adaptation of their native word drughu) + adan (“man”)
  • Drúnos – a family of drû-men; drû (S adaptation of their native word drughu) + noss (“house, family”) The original form of nos is probably noss with the final s dropped at the end of a polysyllable [HKF].
  • Duinhir – river lord; duin (“river”) + hîr (“lord”)
  • Duilwen – green river ; duil (“river” [Etym. DUI-] #Ilk.“only”?) + gwên (Ilk. “green”)
  • Duin D(h)aer – great river (Gelion); duin (“river”) + daer (“great”); #The variation of the second element might reflect Tolkien's reluctance to use the “uncouth” digraph dh.
  • Dúnadan (pl. Dúnedain) – west(ern) man; (n-)dûn (“west”) + adan (“a man from one of the three houses of the Edain”)
  • Dúnedhel – west(ern) elf; (n-)dûn (“west”) + edhel (“elf”)
  • Durthang – dark duress, oppression; dûr (“dark”) + thang (“compulsion, oppression”)

E

  • Echad i Sedryn – camp of the faithful; achad (“camp”) + in (pl. genitive article) + sedryn (pl. of sadron “faithful one”)
  • Edegil – seven stars (Great Bear); odog (“seven”) + gîl (pl. of gîl “star”)
  • Edenedair – fathers of men; plural of adanadar < adan (“man”) + adar (“father”)
  • Edhellond – elf-haven; edhel (“elf”) + lond (“entrance to harbour, land-locked haven”)
  • Edhelrim, eledhrim – elves; edhel, eledh (“elf”) + rim (collective plural ending)
  • Edhelharn – elf stone; edhel (“elf”) + sarn (“stone”)
  • Egladhrim – the forsaken (Falathrim); eglan (“one forsaken”) + rim (collective plural suffix) Dhr is < n-r in secondary contact24).
  • Eglador – land of the Elves (Doriath); eglan (“elf, Falathrim”) + (n-)dor (“land, dwelling place”)
  • Eglamar – Elf-home; egla- (from PQ *hekla “elf, Falathrim”) + (m-)bar (“land, dwelling”) It is said to be an old name, which is reflected by its formation, with the genitival element preceding: *ekla-mbar25); #the fact that the first part of the compound is egla-, not eglan- probably explains the mutation of mb- to m, in contrast to Eglador.
  • Eglath – the forsaken (Falathrim); egla (from PQ *hekla “elf, Falathrim”) + ath (collective plural suffix)
  • Egnor – #fire thorn; êg (“thorn”) + naur (“fire”)
  • Elanor – star-sun (flower); êl (“star”) + anor (“sun”)
  • Elbereth – star queen/lady; êl (“star”) + bereth (“queen, spouse of a king”) No lenition: original name *Elenbarathi yielding *Elmbereth, where triconsonantal lmb > lb26).
  • El(d)rim – elves; el(d) (from CE *eldā- connected or concerned with the stars27)) + rim (collective plural suffix) Ll-r in secondary contact > ldr, later again simplified28).
  • Eledhrim – Elves; elen (“elf”) + rim (collective plural suffix) Dhr is < n-r in secondary contact29).
  • Eledhwen – elf maid (Morwen); eledh (“elf”) + gwend (“woman, maiden”, [Etym. ELED-]) [Etym. WEN-]: since it shows no -d even in the archaic spelling, it probably contains derivative of WEN-, not WENED- stem and the last element is Ilk. gwen “girl”; in Grey Annals the translation is given “Elfsheen”.
  • Elfaron – star-hunter (Moon); êl (“star”) + faron (“hunter”)
  • Elladan – elf-man; ell (from CE *eldā- connected or concerned with the stars30)) + adan (“a man from one of the three houses of the Edain”)
  • Elleth – elf-woman; ell (from CE *eldā- connected or concerned with the stars31)) + eth (traditional ending for female names)
  • Ellon – elf-man; ell (from CE *eldā- connected or concerned with the stars32)) + on (traditional ending for male names)
  • Elrond – starry dome; êl (“star”) + rond (“domed roof”)
  • Elrohir – elf-horse lord; el (from CE *eldā- connected or concerned with the stars33)) + roch (“horse”) + hîr (“master, lord”)
  • Elros – star foam, spray; êl (“star”) + ros (“foam, spray”) In PM:369, the last element is said to be rôs from the Bëorian tongue.
  • Elthor(o)n – eagle of sky; êl (“star”) + Ilk. thorn / S thoron (“eagle”)
  • Eluchil – heir of Elu; Elu (name) + (k-)hîl (“heir”)
  • Elvellon – elf-friend; el (from elen “elf”34)) + mellon (friend)
  • Elwing – star foam; êl (“star”) + wing (“spray, foam”) The meaning of wing is uncertain and could have been taken from Nandorin, but its interpretation is but a guess35); later on p.369 this element is said to come from Bëorian tongue; in [Etym. WIG-], the S, Ilk word for “spindrift, flying spray” is given as gwing.
  • Emyn Arnen – hills beside the water [see [His.], entry arnen]; emyn (pl. of amon “hill”), ar (#from Dor. ar – “outside, beside”) + nen (“water”)
  • Emyn Beraid – hills-towers; emyn (pl. of amon “hill”), beraid (pl. of barad “tower”) #Another possible interpretation of the name is “hills of towers”.
  • Emyn Duir – dark mountains; emyn (pl. of amon “hill”), duir (pl. of dûr “dark”) David Salo: “dh and mh were liable to revert to d and m when they came to follow a nasal after syncope” TolkLang message 19.31.
  • Emyn Eglain – mountains of forsaken elves; emyn (pl. of amon “hill”) + eglain (pl. of eglan “a forsaken”)
  • Emyn Muil – drear hills; emyn (pl. of amon “hill”), muil (Dor. “twilight, shadow, vagueness”)
  • Emyn-nu-Fuin – mountains under night; emyn (pl. of amon “hill”) + nu (“under”) + fuin (“dead of night, gloom, darkness”)
  • Enedwaith – middle folk/region; enedh (“middle, center”) + gwaith (“people, folk, region”)
  • Ennorath – central lands, Middle Earth; en(ed) (“center”) + (n-)dor (“region, dwelling”) + ath (class plural suffix)
  • Ephel Dúath – fence of shadow; ephel (“outer fence, encircling fence”) < ed (“outer”) + pel (“fenced field”), (“nightfall, dimness”) + gwath (“shade”)
  • Erchamion – one handed; er (from ereb “one, alone”) + cam(b) (“hand”) + ion (#ending for a male name)
  • Erebor – lonely mountain; ereb (“isolated, lonely”) + or (from orod “mountain”)
  • Ered Gorgoroth – mountains of terror; ered (pl. of orod “mountain”), gor (“extreme horror” duplicated first syllable of goroth) + (n-)goroth (“horror”)
  • Ered Lemrin – echoing mountains (pure S of Ered Lómin); ered (pl. of orod “mountain”) + glemrin (pl. of glamren “echoing”)
  • Ered Lithui – ash mountains; ered (pl. of orod “mountain”), lith (“ash, sand, dust”) + ui (adjective suffix))
  • Ered Lómin – echoing mountains; ered (pl. of orod “mountain”), lómin (pl. of Dor. lómen “echoing”);
  • Ered Luin – blue mountains; ered (pl. of orod “mountain”), luin (pl. of lûn, lhûn “blue”)
  • Ered Mithrin – grey mountains; ered (pl. of orod “mountain”), mithrin (pl. of mithren “grey”) #M sometimes resists lenition when otherwise may cause confusion.
  • Ered Nimrais – whitehorn mountains; ered (pl. of orod “mountain”), nimp (“white”) + rais (pl. of ras “horn”) The original form of ras is probably rass with the final s dropped at the end of a polysyllable [HKF].
  • Ered Wethrin – shadowy mountains; ered (pl. of orod “mountain”), gwethrin (pl. of gwathren “shadowy, dim”)
  • Ereinion – scion of kings (Gil-galad); erein (AS pl. of aran “king”) + iôn (“son”)
  • Eregion – land of holly trees; ereg (“holly tree”) + ion (#-ond commonly used suffix in the names of regions and countries36)) #The suffix could be reinterpreted or might have blended with Dor. -ion – plural genitive suffix, as in Dor. Region
  • Eruchîn — #children of Eru; Eru (God) + hîn (pl. of hên “child”)
  • Eryn Galen – green forest; eryn (“wood”), calen (“green”)
  • Eryn Lasgalen – wood of greenleaf; eryn (“wood”), lass (“leaf”) + calen (“green”)
  • Eryn Vorn – dark wood; eryn (“wood”), morn (“black, dark”)
  • Esgalduin — veiled river; esgal (“veil, screen, cover”) + duin (“river”)
  • Esgaliant – bridge over veiled river; esgal (“veil, screen, cover”) + iant (“bridge”)
  • Esgaroth – reed lake; esgar (“reed-bed”) + #(h)oth (#collective plural suffix)
  • Ethir Anduin – mouths of great river (Anduin); [His.] ed (“out”) + sîr (“flow, river”), and (“long”) + duin (“long and large river”) David Salo: ”dh and mh were liable to revert to d and m when they came to follow a nasal after syncope” TolkLang message 19.31.

F

  • Faenor – spirit of fire (pure S of half S – half Q Fëanor); faer (“spirit”) + naur (“fire”) S form of Q Fëanáro37).
  • Falathrim – shore folk; falas (“beach, shore”) + rim (collective plural suffix)
  • Fangorn – treebeard; fang (“beard”) + orn (“tree”)
  • Fanuidhol – cloudy head; fân (“cloud”) + ui (adjective suffix) + (n-)dôl (“head, peak”) #The lenition of the final element seems to be very strange, but the stem could have been reinterpreted to be DOL-.
  • Faradrim – hunters; farad (ger. of fara- “hunt”) + rim (collective plural suffix)
  • Felagund – lord of the caves; fela (“cave”) + cund (“prince”) [Etym. KUNDŪ-, PHÉLEG-] In PM:352 said to be of Dwarvish origin, deriving from felakgundu, felaggundu “cave-hewer”, Eldarized into Felagon; this explanation entered the Silmarillion Index.
  • Fen Hollen – closed door; fen (“door”), [His.] hollen, sollen? (p.p. from hol- or sol- “close”)
  • Finarfin – the name probably has no meaning in S and is constructed in the way similar to Fingolfin; fin (reduced Finwë – his father's name) + ar (prefix “noble, royal”) + fin (reduced Arafinwë – his Quenya name)
  • Finglas – hair-leaf; fînd (“tress”) + lass (“leaf”) #The medial g is not clear, might be left from Gnomish lexicon, where fingl meant “tress”, or fing is a variant of find.
  • Fingolfin – the name is stated to have had no meaning in S38); fin (reduced Finwë – his father's name) + goll (“wise”) + fin (reduced Finwë Nolofinwë – his Quenya name)
  • Fingon – hair shout (if interpretable at all); find (“hair, a tress”) + caun (“outcry, clamour”39)) S name of Findekáno40).
  • Finrod – hair-eminent one; find (“hair”) + arod (from Tel. aráto - aráta “noble” + masculing ending -o) In [Etym. RAUTĀ-], the second element is given as rod (from raud “metal”. S equivalent of Tel. Findaráto.
  • Fimbrethil – slim birch; fim (“slim, slender”) + brethil (“birch”) David Salo supposed that v was probably liable to revert to b after a nasal, just like dh and mh, Tolklang message 19.31.
  • Firiath – mortal men; fair (“mortal”) + ath (collective plural suffix)
  • Fíriel – a mortal maid; fair (“mortal”) + iell (“daughter, child” [Etym. SEL-D] traditional ending for women’s names)
  • Firieth – a mortal woman; fair (“mortal”) + eth (traditional ending for female names)
  • Firion – a mortal man; fair (“mortal”) + on (traditional ending for male names)
  • Forlindon – North(ern) musical land; forn (“right, north”) + lindon (Ilk. “musical land”) Ilk probably explains the intervocalic nd instead of nn, for the Etym. also gives another form lhinnon #closer to TA S? Later was probably reconsidered to be derived from *lindânâ “[the land] of the Lindar” [HKF].
  • Fornost Erain – North(ern) fortress of the kings; forn (“right, north”) + ost (“fortress, stronghold”), erain (pl. of aran “king”)
  • Forodwaith – northmen; forod (“northern”) + gwaith (“people, folk”)

G

  • Galadriel – lady, crowned with a radiant garland; galad (“light, radiance”) + (“crown”) + iell (“daughter” [Etym. SEL-D] traditional ending for women’s names) Sindarin equivalent of Tel. Alatâriel(lë)41))
  • Galadhrim – wood elves of Lórien; galadh (“tree”) + rim (collective plural suffix)
  • Galvorn – shining black; gal (“shine”) + morn (“dark, black”)
  • Gaurwaith – wolf-men; (n-)gaur (“werewolves”) + gwaith (“people, folk”)
  • Garthurian (= Doriath) – Dor. fenced realm; garth, gardh- (Dor. “realm”) + thurian ([HKF] Dor. p.p. of THUR- “surround, fence, ward, secrete”)
  • Gildor – noble star; gîl (“star, bright spark”) + taur (“noble, king, lord”) The second element is only used poetically, as –dor often found in names [Etym. -].
  • Gil-Estel (Eärendil) – star of hope; gîl (“star, bright spark”) + estel (“hope”)
  • Gil-galad – star of radiance; gîl (“star, bright spark”) + galad (“light, radiance”)42) Reinterpreted from gil + calad “star light” [Etym. KAL-]
  • Gilthoniel – star-kindler; gîl (pl. of gîl “star, bright spark”) + thóniel (perf. act. part. of than- “kindle, set light to”) #[HKF] it is possible that iel is just iell “daughter” [Etym. SEL-D] traditional ending for women’s names.
  • Gladhwen – laughing maiden (pure S of Lalwen); gladh- (v. “laugh”)43) + gwend (“girl, maiden”) S form of Quenya Lalwendë44).
  • Glamdring – foe hammer; glam(b) (“shouting, confused noise, an orc”) + dring (from dringa- “beat”)
  • Glamhoth – din-hord, the orcs; glam(b) (“shouting, confused noise, an orc”) + hoth (“crowd, hord”, here used as collective plural suffix)
  • Glanduin – border river; gland (“boundary”) + duin (“long and large river”) David Salo: “dh and mh were liable to revert to d and m when they came to follow a nasal after syncope” TolkLang message 19.31.
  • Glanhír – border river; gland (“boundary”) + sîr (“river”)
  • Gloredhel – #golden elf; glaur (“golden light”) + edhel (“elf”)
  • Glorfindel – #golden hair; glaur (“golgen light”) + fîndel (“(braided) hair”) Perhaps AS, that would explain –nd- not changed to –nn-; the name stated by Tolkien to have “escaped reconsideration…and now difficult to fit into S”45).
  • Gobennas – history; go (prefix “together, with”) + pent (“story”) + as (#abstract collective suffix) #This suffix probably denotes “a complete set of different items of one kind”.
  • (G)ódhellim – deep, wise elves (gnomes); g (probably taken from Golodh “Noldor”46)) + ódhel (“deep elf”) + rim (collective plural suffix)
  • Goldamîr – Noldo-jewel (Silmaril); golda (Dor. gen of gold “Noldo”) + mîr (Dor. “jewel, precious thing”)
  • Golodhrim – Noldor elves; Golodh (“Noldor”) + rim (collective plural suffix)
  • Golodhvir – Noldo-jewel (Silmaril); Golodh (“Noldo”) + mîr (“jewel, precious thing”)
  • Gondolin – hidden rock; gond (“great stone, rock”) + dollen (p.p. of doltha- “conceal”); [Etym. DUL-] – “heart of hidden rock”; gond (“great stone, rock”) + dol (from dollen p.p. of Doltha “conceal”) + ind (“inner thought, heart”); S name for Q Ondolindë (“the Rock of the Music of Water”)47).
  • Gondolindrim – people of Gondolin; Gondolin + d (part of the original -ind ending) + rim (collective plural suffix)
  • Gondor – stone land; gond (“great stone, rock”) + (-n)dor (“land, dwelling”)
  • Gonnhirrim – lords of stone (S for “dwarves”); gond (“stone”) + hîr (“lord”) + rim (collective plural suffix)
  • Gorthaur – abominable fear; gor (“fear, dread”) + thaur (“abominable, abhorrent”) In [Etym. THUS-] the last element is given thû “stench”, as the proper name of the chief servant of Morgoth.
  • Gorthol – terror-helm48); gor (from gorgor “extreme terror”) + thôl (“helm”)
  • Gothmog - #tyrannous, oppressive fear; goth (“dread”) + (m-)baug (“tyrannous, cruel, oppressive”) [Etym. MBAW-] gives the original form as *Gothombauk-.
  • Gurthang – death sword; gurth (“death”) + ang (“iron”)
  • Gwachaedir – all seeing stone (palantír); gwa (= go prefix “together”) + hae (“far, remote”) + tirn (“watcher”) In PM appears as gwahaedir.
  • Gwaihir – wind lord; gwaew (“wind”) + hîr (“lord”)
  • Gwaith-i-Mírdain – people of jewel-smiths; gwaith (“people, folk”) + in (pl. genitive article) + mîr (“jewel”) + tain (pl. of tan “maker, smith”)
  • Gwathló – grey flood; gwath (“shade, shadow, dim light”) + (“shallow lake, fenland”)
  • Gwathuirim – shadowy people (Dunlendings); gwath (“shade, shadow, dim light”) + ui (adjectival suffix) + rim (collective plural)
  • Gwingloth – foam-flower; gwing (“spindrift, flying spray”) + loth (“flower”) S form of Q Wingelot, Wingelóte; in PM:370, the first element is said to come from Bëorian wing.
  • Gyrth i Chuinar – dead who live; gyrth (#pl. of? dead) + in (here: plural relative pronoun) + cuinar (3p pl of cuina- “be alive”) #Given as Gyrth i Guinar, in the Silmarillion, which is probably a mistake.

H

  • Hadhodrond – S. for Khazad-dûm; Hadhod (rendering of Khazad into S sounds) + rond (“dome-roofed hall”49))
  • Haerast – far shore; hae (“far, remote”) + #rast (#“shore”)
  • Haldir – hidden hero; hal (from haltha- “screen”) + dîr (“man, adult male”)
  • Handir – intelligent one; hand (“intelligent”) + dîr (“man, adult male”)
  • Haradrim – South(ern) people; harad (“south”) + rim (collective plural suffix)
  • Harathrad – south(ern) ford; har (from harad “south”) + athrad (“river-crossing, ford, way”) #The second element could be interpreted as: ath (prefix “on both sides, across”) + râd (“path, track”)
  • Harlindon – South(ern) Lindon; har (from harad “south”) + lindon (Ilk. “musical land”) Ilk. probably explains the intervocalic nd instead of nn, for the Etym. also gives another form lhinnon #closer to TA S? Later was probably reconsidered to be derived from lindânâ [HKF] “[the land] of the lindar”.
  • Harnen – South(ern) river; har (from harad “south”) + nen (“water, lesser river”)
  • Haudh-en-Arwen – the Ladybarrow; haudh (“mound, grave, tomb”) + en (genitive article) + ar(a) (“high, noble, royal”) + gwend (“maiden, woman”)
  • Haudh-en-Elleth– rest of the Elf maiden ; haudh (“mound, grave, tomb”) + en (genitive article) + el (S eledh “elf”) + eth (traditional ending for women’s names)
  • Haudh-en-Ndengin – mound of the slaying; haudh (“mound, grave, tomb”) + en (genitive article) + (n-)dengin (pl. of dangen “slain, slaying”) #We would rather expect it to be Hauth-e-Ndengin, so perhaps it's a dialectal variation of the name; the Etym. gives it as Haudh i Ndengin, which looks more like LR-style S with the second element Ndengin in plural.
  • Haudh-en-Nirnaeth – mound of (bitter) tears; haudh (“mound, grave, tomb”) + en (genitive article) + nîr (“tear”) + naeth (“woe”)
  • Haudh in Gwanur – mound of the brothers; haudh (“mound, grave, tomb”), in (pl. genitive article), gwanur (pl. “brothers, kinsmen”)
  • Helevorn – black glass; hele (“glass”) + morn (“black, dark”)
  • Helluin – pale, #blue ice; hel (from heleg “ice”) + luin (Dor. “pale”)
  • Henneth Annûn – window of sunset; henneth (“window”) + annûn (“west, sunset”)
  • Himlad – cool plain; him (“cool”) + lad (“plain, valley”)
  • Hírilorn – lady-tree; híril (“lady”) + orn (“tree”)
  • Hithaeglir – Misty mountains; hîth (“mist, fog”) + aeg (S aegas “mountain peak”) + lîr (“range, row”)
  • Hithlain – mist-thread; hîth (“mist, fog”) + lain (“thread”)
  • Hithliniath – misty pools; hîth (“mist, fog”) + lîn (“pool”) + ath (collective plural suffix)
  • Hithlum – misty shade; hîth (“mist, fog”) + lum (“shade”)
  • Húrin – strong heart; hûr (“vigour, fiery spirit”) + ind (“inner thought, mind, heart”)
  • Huor – heart-vigour, courage [Etym. GOR-, KHŌ-N]; hûr (“vigour, fiery spirit”) + gor (from primitive *gore “violence, impetus, haste”) The name was adapted to S from the language of the Edain50).

I

  • Iant Iaur – old bridge; iant (“bridge”), iaur (“old”)
  • Iarwain – the oldest; iaur (“old”) + wain (adj. superlative suffix) #The meaning of the last element is not entirely clear.
  • Id(h)ril – #inner brilliance; ind (“inner thought, mind, heart”) + rill (“brilliance”) S form of Q Itarillë (“Itarildë”), but neither of the Q stems that the word contains were found in S51).
  • Imlad Morgul – valley of black magic; im (“between, within”) + lad (“plain, valley”), morn (“dark, black”) + (n-)gûl (“magic, necromancy”) In L:427, Tolkien explains that … “the triconsonantal group (rng) then being reduced to rg”.
  • Imladris – deep-dale cleft; im (“between, within”) + lad (“plain, valley”) + ris (“a ravine”) The original form of ris is probably riss with the final s dropped at the end of a polysyllable [HKF].
  • Imloth Melui – sweet flower valley; im (“between, within”) + loth (“a head of small flowers”), mel (“dear”) + ui (adjective suffix) #M sometimes resists lenition when otherwise may cause confusion.
  • Inglor – golden heart; in(d) (“heart, meaning, inner thought”) + glaur (“golden”) [Etym. ID-]
  • Inglorion – son of Inglor; in(d) (“heart, meaning, inner thought”) + glaur (“golden”) [Etym. ID-] + iôn (“son”)
  • Ínias – annals; în (“year”) + as (#abstract collective suffix) #This suffix probably denotes “a complete set of different items of one kind”.
  • Iorhael – old-wise (Frodo); iaur (“ancient, old”) + sael (“wise”)
  • Ithilien – moon land; Ithil (“moon”) + end (commonly used suffix in the names of regions and countries52))
  • Ithildin – star-moon (metal); Ithil (“moon”) + tinu, tint (“spark, little star”)
  • Ithryn Luin – the blue wizards, istari; ithryn (pl. of ithron “wizard”), luin (pl. of lûn “blue”)

L

  • Labadal – hopafoot; laba (from laba-“ hop”) + tâl (“foot”)
  • Lachen(n) – flame-eyed (Noldo); lach (“flame”) + hend (“eye”)
  • Laegel – green elf; laeg (“fresh and green”) + el (from stem éled- “starfolk, elves”)
  • Legolas – green leaves; leg (Nan. form of laeg “green”) + golas (“collection of leaves, foliage”) < gwa (“together”) + lass (“leaf”)53)
  • Laegrim (Laegel(d)rim) – green elves; laeg (“fresh and green”) + rim (collective plural suffix)
  • Laer Cú Beleg – song of the great bow; laer (“song”), (“bow”), beleg (“great, mighty”) #The lack of lenition in beleg could be explained by dialectal differences or by the play of words “Great Bow” – “Bow of Beleg”.
  • Lamthanc – forked tonue; lam(b) (“tongue”) + thanc (“split, forked”)
  • Landroval – wide wing; land (“wide, broad”) + roval (“great wing”)
  • L(h)athleg – sharp ears; l(h)ath (stem “listen”) + laeg (“sharp, acute”) The TA S form would probably be Lathleg [HKF].
  • Lebennin – five rivers; leben (“five”) + nîn (pl. of nen “lesser river”)
  • Lembas – way bread; lend (“journey”) + (m-)bass (“bread”)
  • Levain tad-dail – two-legged animals; levain (pl. of lavan “animal, four-footed beast”), tad (“two”) + tail (pl. of tal “foot”)
  • Linaewen – mere of birds; lin (“pool, mere”) + aew (“bird”) + en (adjective suffix)
  • Lithlad – ash plain;lith (“ash, sand, dust”) + lad (“plain, valley”)
  • Loeg Ningloron – pools of golden water-flowers (Gladden Fields); loeg (“pool”), nîn (pl. of nen “water”) + glaur (“golden”) + on (#Nan. suffix, like in Galathon)
  • Loméndor – echoing land; lomén (Dor. “echoing”) + (-n)dor (“land, dwelling”)
  • Lóminorthin - echoing mountains (pure Dor. of Ered Lómin); lómin (pl. of Dor.lómen “echoing”) + orthin (pl. of Dor. orth “mountain”)
  • Lond Daer – great haven; lond (“entrance to harbour, land-locked haven”), daer (“great”) #Dh could revert to d, assimilated by the preceding d.
  • Lonnath Ernin – royal havens; lond (“haven”) + ath (collective plural suffix), ernin (pl. of arnen “royal”) For possible interpretations see [His.] entry arnen.
  • Lórindol (Hador) – golden head; (g-)lor (from glaur, reduced in polysyllables [Etym. GLAW(-R-)] “gold”) + in (#Dor. genitive suffix) + (n-)dôl (“head”)
  • Lossoth – snowmen; loss (“snow”) + #(h)oth (collective plural suffix) Ss was preserved in the intervocalic position [HKF].

M

  • Mablost – empty hand (Beren); mab (Dor. “hand”) + lost (Dor. “empty”)
  • Mablung – heavy hand; mab (Dor. “hand”) + lung (Dor. “heavy”)
  • Maed(h)ros – Sindarized combination of Q Maitimo “well-shaped” and Russandol “copper-top”; maed (“shaply”) + ross (“copper-coloured”)54); [Etym. MAD-, RUS-] gives translation “pale glitter”; maedh (“pale, fellow, fawn”) + ross (“flash, glitter of metal”)
  • Maeglin maeg (“sharp, piercing, penetrating”) + glîn (“gleam, glint [of eyes]”)
  • Malduin – golden river; mall ([Etym. SMAL-] malt “gold”) + duin (“long and large river”) David Salo: ”dh and mh were liable to revert to d and m when they came to follow a nasal after syncope” TolkLang message 19.31.
  • Mallorn – golden tree; mall (“golden, of gold”) + orn (“tree”)
  • Mallos – golden-white (flower, plant); mall ([Etym. SMAL-] malt “gold”) + loss (“snow”) Final s in loss is dropped at the end of a polysyllable [HKF].
  • Menegroth – thousand caves; meneg (#probably “thousand”) + groth (“large underground dwelling”)
  • Menelrond – heaven-dome; menel (“sky, high heaven”) + rond (“domed roof”)55)
  • Men-i-naugrim – way of dwarves; men (“way, road”) + in (pl. gen. article) + naug (“a dwarf”) + rim (class plural suffix)
  • Merethrond – great hall of feasts; [HKF] mereth (“feast”) + rond (“dome-roofed hall”) Nd doesn’t become nn>n at the end of fully accented monosyllables, such as thond56).
  • Methed-en-Glad – end of wood; methed (“end”) + en (sing. gen. article) + glad (“wood”)
  • Methedras – last peak; methed (“last”) + ras (“horn, mountain peak”) The original form of ras is probably rass with the final s dropped at the end of a polysyllable [HKF].
  • Minas Anor – the tower of the sun; minas (“tower, fort”), Anor (“the sun”)
  • Minas Ithil – the tower of the moon; minas (“tower, fort”), Ithil (“the moon”)
  • Minas Morgul– tower of black magic; minas (“tower, fort”), morn (“dark, black”) + (n-)gûl (“magic, necromancy”) As for the lenition inside the second word, in L:427, Tolkien explains that “…the triconsonantal group (rng) then being reduced to rg”.
  • Minas Tirith – tower watch; minas (“tower, fort”), tirith (“watch, guard, vigilance”)
  • Mindolluin – pale, #blue hill; mindon (“isolated hill”) + luin (#Dor. “pale, #blue”)
  • Minhiriath – between the rivers; min (prefix “between”) + sîr (“river”) + ath (class plural suffix)
  • Mîr in Geleidh – jewel of [the] Noldor; mîr (“jewel, precious thing”) + in (pl. genitive article) + Geleidh (pl. of (n-)Golodh “Noldor”) #In TA S would probably be Mîr in Gelydh.
  • Mirion – great jewel (Silmaril); mîr (“jewel, precious thing”) + on (#augmentative suffix)
  • Mitheithel – hoarwell; mith (“grey”) + eithel (“spring, well”)
  • Mithlond – Grey Havens; mith (“grey”) + lond (“entrance to harbour, land-locked haven”)
  • Mithrandir – grey wanderer; mith (“grey”) + ran (“wander, stray”) + dîr (“man, adult male”)
  • Mithril – silver-like metal; mith (“grey”) + rill (“brilliance”)
  • Mithrim – grey elves; mith (“grey”) + rim (collective plural suffix)
  • Mithrim – #grey cold lake; mith (“grey”) + rimb (“cold pool or lake”)
  • Morannon – black gate; mor (from stem mor “dark, black”) + annon (“great door or gate”)
  • Morben – a dark person; morn (“dark”) + pen (“someone, anyone”) is said to be “formally” related to Q Moriquendi; the first element could be mora-, after kala- in Kalaquendi57).
  • Morchant – shadow; morn (“dark”) + cant (“shape”) #The second element seems to be liquid mutated (internal spirant mutation).
  • Mordor – black land; morn (“dark, black”) + (n-)dor (“land, dwelling place”)
  • Morgai – black fence; morn (“dark, black”) + cai (= cail “fence”)
  • Morgoth – dark enemy; morn (“dark, black”) + coth (“enemy”)
  • Morgulduin - black magic river; morn (“dark, black”) + (n-)gûl (“magic, necromancy”) + duin (“long and large river”)
  • Moria – black chasm; mor (from stem mor “dark, black”) + (“abyss, void”)
  • Mormegil – black sword; morn (“dark, black”) + megil (“sword”)
  • Mornedhel – dark elf; morn (“black, dark”) + edhel (“elf”)
  • Morthond – black root; morn (“dark, black”) + thond (“root”) Nd doesn’t become nn > n at the end of fully accented monosyllables, such as thond58).
  • Morwen – dark lady; mor (stem“dark, black”) + gwend (“woman, maiden”); [Etym. WEN-] since it shows no -d even in the archaic spelling, it probably contains derivative of WEN-, not WENED- stem and the last element is Ilk. gwen (“girl”).

N

  • Nan Dongoroth – valley of dreadful death; nan (“vally, grassland”), don (“swart, swarthy”) + goroth (“death”); Dor. Dungorthindunn (Dor. “black”) + (n-)gorthin (Dor. “horrible”); Dor. Dungortheb - dunn (Dor. “black”) + ngorth (Dor. “horror”) + eb (adjective suffix); the suffix -in in Dungorthin Ardalambion interprets as Dor. plural ending.
  • Nanduhirion – valley of dim streams;nan (“vally, grassland”) + (“nightfall, dimness”) + sîr (“river”) + ion (pl. genitive suffix)
  • Nan Tathren – willow-vale; nan (“vally, grassland”), tathar (“willow”) + en (adjective suffix) #The lack of lenition could probably be explained by dialectal differences.
  • Nardol – fiery head; naur (“fire”) + (n-)dôl (“head”) #The first element naur usually comes out as nor in compounds; the same vowel change is seen in Iarwain < iaur + wain.
  • Nargothrond – fortress of Narog; Narog (“river-name”) + ost (“fortress”) + rond (“dome-roofed hall”)
  • Narn-i-Chîn Húrin – tale of the children of Húrin;narn (“tale”) + in (pl. gen. article) + hîn (pl. of hên “child”), hûr (“vigour, fiery spirit”) + ind (“inner thought, heart”) This name is said by Ch. Tolkien to be have been “improperly changed” by him in UT to “Narn-i-Hîn Húrin”59).
  • Nauglamîr – the necklace of the dwarves; naugla ([HKF] Dor. gen. of naugol “dwarf”) + mîr (“jewel, precious thing”)
  • Nen Girith – shaddering water (water of horror); nen (“water”), girith (“shuddering, horror”)
  • Nen Hithoel – mist-cool water; nen (“water”), hîth (“grey”) + oel (“cool”) [HKF] oel was reinterpreted by Tolkien from earlier “lake” when he decided that primitive ai yielded ae, not oe; #[His.] – “[hithoel] seems to show that words beginning with an h may resist the lenition”.
  • Nen Lalaith – water of laughter; nen (“water”), lalaith (“laughter”)
  • Nenuial – lake (water) of twilight; nen (“water”) + uial (“twilight”)
  • Nevrast – hither shore; #nev (#“hither,close”) + #rast (#“shore”) The later form of Nivrost60).
  • Nimloth – white flower; nimp (“pale, white”) + loth (“a head of small flowers”)
  • Nindalf – wet land; nîn (“wet”) + talf (“flat field, land”)
  • Níniel – tearful; nîn (“tear”) + iell (“daughter” [Etym.] SEL-Dtraditional ending for women’s names)
  • Nîn-in-Eilph – waters of swans; nîn (pl. of nen “water”) + in (pl. gen. article) + eilph (pl. of alph “swan”)
  • Nírnaeth Arnoediad – unnumbered tears; nírnaeth (“lamentation”) < nîr (“tear”) + naeth (“woe”), ar- (pref. “without”) + noediad (ger. of noedia-, nedia- “count”)
  • Nivrim – West-march; niv (from Dor. nivon “west”) + rim (Dor. “edge, hem, border”)
  • Nivrost – West-dales;niv (from Dor. nivon “west”) + rost (Dor. “plain, wide land between mountains”); the earlier form of Nevrast “hither shore”61)
  • Nogrod – dwarf dwelling; naug (“dwarf”) + grod (“delving, underground dwelling”) Late substitution for Novrod (“hollow underground dwelling”) < nov (AS “hollow”) + grod (“excavation, underground dwelling”), which “retains the older Eldarin order with the adjectival element first”62).
  • Nos Finrod – house of Finrod; noss (“house, family”) + Finrod (see Finrod above) The double consonant in noss might be shortened because of the construct state of the word [HKF].
  • Núrnen – sad water; #nûr (“sad”) + nen (“water”) #[His.]– the meaning of the first element is “highly hypothetical”.

O

  • Onodló – entwash; onod (“ent”) + (“shallow lake, fenland”)
  • Orodruin – mountain of blazing fire; orod (“mountain”) + ruin (“fiery red”)
  • Orc(h)rist – orc cleaver; orch (“orc”) + rist (from risto “cleave”) The stem of the last element blended with the stem kris- of similar meaning63).
  • Orfalch Echor – #encircling, up-going valley;or (prefix “above, over”) + falch (“deep cleft, ravine”), echor (“encircling”)
  • Orthanc – forked hight; or (from stem oro- “up, rise, high”) + thanc (“split, forked”)
  • Osgiliath – city, fortress of stars; ost (“fortress”) + gîl (“star, bright spark”) + ath (collective plural suffix)
  • Ossiriand – land of seven rivers; od (from odog, Q otso “seven”) + sîr (“river”) + and (commonly used suffix in the names of regions and countries64))
  • Ost-in-Edhil– city, fortress of elves; ost (“fortress, city with wall around”) + in (pl. gen. article) + edhil (pl. of edhel “elf”)

P

  • Panthael – fullwise; pant (“full”) + sael (“wise”)
  • Parth Galen – green sward; parth (“field or enclosed grassland”65)), calen (“green”)
  • Pelargir – harbour of royal ships; pel (from stem pel- “go round, revolve”) + ar(a) (“royal, noble”) + cîr (pl. of cair “ship”)
  • Pelennor – fenced inner land; pel (from stem pel- “go round, revolve”) + end (from enedh “middle”) + (n-)dor (“land, dwelling”)
  • Pen-adar– fatherless; pen (“without, lacking”) + adar (“father”)
  • Peredhel – half-elf; per (stem of perin “halve”) + edhel (“elf”)
  • Pinnath Gelin – green ridges; pinnath (collective plural of ? [His.]), celin (pl. of calen- “green”)

R

  • Radhrim – east march; [HKF] radh (Dor. radhon “east”) + rim (Dor. “edge, hem, border”)
  • Ramdal – wall end; ram(b) + tâl (“foot”, here: “end”)
  • Rammas Echor – great wall circle; ram(b) (“wall”) + as (#abstract collective suffix), echor (“outer circle, outer ring”) < ed (prefix “forth, out”) + côr > caur (“round, globed”) #This suffix probably denotes “a complete set of different items of one kind” rather that mere plurality.
  • Ras Arphain – high snow peak; ras (“horn, mountain peak”), ar(a) (here: “high”) + phain (“white”) #The second element is an alternative spelling of fain.
  • Rath Dínen– silent street; rath (“climbing passage, street”), dínen (“silent”) In WJ the form found is Rath Dhínen, with regular lenition.
  • Rath Celerdain – street of lampwrights; rath (“street”), celerdain (pl. of calardan “lampwrights” < calar (“lamp”) + tan (“maker, smith”)
  • Rauros – roaring foam; rau (“lion”) + ros (“foam, rain”) The original form of ros is probably ross with the final s dropped at the end of a polysyllable [HKF].
  • Region – holly-tree area; [HKF] reg (Dor. regorn “holly tree”) + ion (Dor. gen. pl. suffix) = Dor. Regornion [Etym. ERÉK-]
  • Rhudaur – east(ern) forest; rhu (from rhûn “east(ern)”) + taur (“forest”)
  • Rían – crown-gift; (crown) + an (from anna- “give”)
  • Ringló – cold water; ring (“cold”) + (“shallow lake, fenland”)
  • Rohan (AS Rochand66)) – horse country; roh (from roch “horse”) + and (commonly used suffix in the names of regions and countries67))
  • Rohír – horse lords; roh (from roch “horse”) + hîr (pl. of hîr “lord”)
  • Sammath Naur – chambers of fire; sam(b) (“chamber, room”) + ath (collective plural suffix), naur (“fire”)

S

  • Sarch nia Hîn Húrin – grave of the children of Húrin; sarch (“grave”), nia (pre-LR period plural genitive article, later changed to in WJ:160) hîn (pl. of hên “child”), hûr (“vigour, fiery spirit”) + ind (“inner thought, heart”)
  • Sarn Athrad – stone ford; sarn (“stone as a material”), athrad (ger. of athra- “river-crossing, ford, way”); #The second element could be interpreted as: ath (prefix “on both sides, across”) + râd (“path, track”)
  • Sarn Gebir – stone spikes; sarn (“stone as a material”) cebir (pl. of ceber “stake, spike”)
  • Seregon – blood of stone; sereg (“blood”) + gond (“great stone, rock”)
  • Sirannon – gate-stream; sîr (“river”) + annon (“great door or gate”)
  • Sirion – the great river; sîr (“river”) + on (augmentative suffix) #Another possible interpretation: “the land of the waters” where ion is archaic pl. genitive suffix.
  • Sirannon – gate river; sîr (“river”) + annon (“great door, gate”)
  • Sîr Ninglor – gladden (water-gold) river; sîr (“river”), nîn (pl. of nen “water”) + glaur (“gold”); not clear why the second element of Ninglor is not lenited, David Salo states that gh before a nasal could probably revert back to g, before it became zero, TolkLang message 19.31.

T

  • Talath Dirnen – guarded plain; talath (“flat surface, plain”), tirnen (p.p. of tir- “watch, guard, gaze, look at”)
  • Talath Rhúnen – eastern plain; talath (“flat surface, plain”), rhúnen (“eastern”) Lack of lenition probably shows that rh could sometimes resist lenition, functioning as r, cf. Amrûn [HKF].
  • Taur-e-Ndaedelos – forest of the great (shadow of) fear (Mirkwood); taur (“great wood, forest”) + en (sing. gen. article) + #daer (“great”) or #dae (“shadow”) + delos (“abhorrence, loathing, detestation”) [Etym. DYEL-] probably del (“fear”) + gos, goth (#gost? “dread”); #dae is not found in Etym, but the stem is probably NDAY.
  • Taur-en-Faroth – forest of a hunter, hunters; taur (“great wood, forest”) + en (pl. gen. article) + faroth (hunter, hunters ? [His.]) #The last element in Faroth could be suffix (-h)oth also found in Lossoth, Esgaroth and Lammoth.
  • Taur-im-Duinath – forest between rivers; taur (“great wood, forest”) + im (prefix “between”) + duin (“long and large river”) + ath (collective plural suffix)
  • Taur-nu-Fuin – forest under night (Mirkwood); taur (“great wood, forest”) + nu (“under”) + fuin (“night, gloom, darkness”)
  • Tauros – forest dread (Oromë) [Etym. TÁWAR-]; taur (“great wood, forest”) + goss (“dread, fear”); in PM:358, the S name of Oromë is given as (Aran) Tauron “the (king) forester” < aran “king”, taur “great wood, forest” + on (traditional ending for male names)
  • Tawar-in-Drúedain – forest of wild men; tawar (“great wood, forest”) + in (pl. gen. article) + drú (S adaptation of their native word drughu) + edain (pl. of adan “man”)
  • Tawarwaith – forest people; tawar (“great wood, forest”) + gwaith (“people, folk”)
  • Tegilbor – pen-hand; tegil (Sindarized Q tekil “pen”) + paur (“a tightly closed hand as in using an implement or a craft-tool”)68)
  • Thangorodrim – mountains of tyranny; thang (“compulsion, oppression”) + orod (“mountain”) + rim (class plural suffix)
  • Tharbad – crossroads; thar (prefix “across”) + pad (“way”)
  • Thargelion – crossing of Gelion; thar (prefix “across”) + Gelion (river name) Thingolgrey cloak; thind (Dor, S “grey, pale”) + coll (“cloak, mantle”); S form of Q Sindikollo; the second element was reinterpreted from earlier gôl “wise” [Etym. THIN-].
  • Thorondor – eagle lord; thoron (“eagle”) + taur (“king”)
  • Thorongil – eagle of star; thoron (“eagle”) + gîl (“star, bright spark”)
  • Tinnúviel – daughter of twilight; [Etym. TIN-] tindumh (AS “twilight”) + iell (“daughter, child” [Etym. SEL-D] traditional ending for women’s names) [Etym.] AS *Tindômiselde, Q Tindómerel.
  • Tindobel – starlit village, city; tindu (AS “twilight”) + gobel (“village, town”) #Nd doesn’t become nn within one morpheme as it’s an archaic name.
  • Tol Brandir – #high island; toll (“island”), brand (“lofty, noble, fine”) + dîr (traditional suffix for proper names [Etym. DER- ]) The double consonant in toll might be shortened because of the construct state of the word [HKF] #The second element seems to be a noun (high, noble man?) in an adjectival position, and that could explain the lack of mutation.
  • Tol-ereb – lonely island (Tol-eressea);toll (“island”) + ereb (“isolated, lonely”)
  • Tol Galen – green isle; toll (“island”) + calen (“green”)
  • Tol-in-Gaurhoth – isle of werewolves; toll (“island”) + in (pl. gen. article) + gaur (“werewolf”) + hoth (class plural suffix) #[HKF] with collective plurals ending in -hoth, the article can be optionally singular, cf. Naur dan i ngaurhoth.
  • Tolfalas – coast isle; toll (“island”) + falas (“coast, beach, shore”)
  • Tol(l)ondren – stone isle; toll (“island”) + gond (“stone”) + ren (adjectival suffix)
  • Torath – kings; taur (“legitimate king of a tribe”) + ath (collective plural suffix)
  • Tumladen – #open valley; tum (“deep valley”) + laden (“clear, open, wide”)
  • Túramarth – master of doom; tûr (“mastery, victory”) + amarth (“fate, doom”)
  • Turgon – master-shout (if interpretable at all69)); tûr (“mastery, victory”) + caun (“outcry, clamour” 70)) S name of Turukáno.
  • Túrin – #victorious heart; tûr (“mastery,victory”) + ind (“inner thought, heart, mind”)
  • Tyrn Gorthad - Barrow Downs; tyrn (n. pl. “downs” [His.]) + gorth (“dead”) + sad (“place”)

U

  • Uilos – ever-white snow; #ui (stem of uireb “eternal”) + loss (“snow”) Final s in loss is dropped at the end of a polysyllable [HKF].
  • Uldor – #hideous king; ul (stem “hideous, horrible”) + #taur (“king”)
  • Ulfang – #hideous beard; ul (stem “hideous, horrible”) + fang (“beard”)
  • Ulfast – #hideous hair; ul (stem “hideous, horrible”) + #fast (“shaggy hair”)
  • Ulwarth – #hideous betrayer; ul (stem “hideous, horrible”) + gwarth (“betrayer”)
  • Umboth Muilin – veiled pool; umboth (Dor. “large pool”) + muilin (Dor. “secret, veiled”)

See also

On Tolkiendil

On the net

1) , 8) , 41) , 42) PM:347
2) , 49) WJ:414
3) , 17) , 56) , 58) LR:App.E
4) WJ:148
6) PM:321
7) , 63) S:440
9) , 15) , 16) , 19) , 36) , 52) , 64) , 66) , 67) UT:412
10) L:426
11) , 14) PM:358
12) L:428
13) , 51) PM:346
18) WJ:362,376
20) UT:333
21) UT:347
22) , 68) PM:318
23) WJ:370
24) , 27) , 29) , 30) , 31) , 32) , 33) , 34) WJ:363
25) WJ:365
26) MR:387
28) , 46) WJ:364
35) PM:349
37) , 44) PM:343
38) , 69) PM:344
39) , 70) PM:362
40) PM:345
43) PM:359
45) PM:379
47) S:143
48) Guide:172
50) PM:364
53) L:282
54) PM:366
55) PM:376
57) WJ:362
59) LRW:355
60) , 61) S:414
62) WJ:389,414
65) UT:337
 
langues/english/i-lam_arth/compound_sindarin_names.txt · Dernière modification: 28/08/2013 18:05 par Elendil
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